Maria Cockrell Part 6: Maria goes sailing and Jimmy is apprenticed

hebrides

At the end of July 1870 Maria accompanies her two charges, Eva aged 6 and Beryl aged 5, and the rest of the Hamilton family on a six-week sailing holiday around the Hebridean islands off north-west Scotland. First traveling by steamship for 8 hours from the river Clyde to Fort William before joining the Yacht ‘Columbine’. Maria has her first taste of sailing in bad weather during the following weeks, as she writes to her mother on 25 August 1870 from the yacht anchored off Isleornsay (village on the Isle of Skye overlooking the Isle of Ornsay):

You will be thankful to hear that I and all on board are quite well, but we have had fearful weather. Tuesday we left Tobermory in the Island of Mull, but the wind was against us. I never expected I should see such waves. I went on deck about nine and before tea we were every female on board, 7 in number, stretched on the decks in sea sickness. We did indeed feed the fishes. We wanted to get to Skye. Before we had got far, we heard a tremendous crash, and looking up, found the wind had torn our top sail, so we were obliged to reef our mainsail, which caused the vessel to toss very much.

We then put into the first shelter we came to, which was a natural harbour in the Isle of Rum, and rum enough. I thought it was only one house on the Island, belonging to the chief called McLeod, dressed in Highland Kilts. There were a few servant’s huts but no shop of any kind, nor Carpenter. But he was very kind and sent a large basket of Vegetables, fish, Grouse and Venison. We stayed one day just to recover from our sicknesses and yesterday morning weighed anchor to come to this place.

It was blowing hard when we started, but when we got into the open sea, it was a tempest, the sea at times washing clean over the decks, and as we could not get up, we just stopped in our berths the whole day, and the steward had as much as he could do to empty the basins, but we are all well today and it does seem good to be in a calm again.

We are to remain here today to get the sail repaired, and as there are a few houses and a post office, I thought I would embrace the opportunity.

The dear Children love this life and are so good and uncomplaining. I think I have seen the best and worst sides of yachting. It certainly is lovely in fine weather, such wild grand Mountains, and at every turn they seem to break out into fresh beauty. And in stormy weather it is grand in its terrible majesty. The wind comes rolling down the sides of the Mountains and the Yacht, like a thing of life, just mounts up on the crest of the waves and dashes down again into the trough of the sea, and you feel that if it would stop for one moment, you would be quite well.

By the end of September Maria tells her mother:

I have enjoyed it so much and feel so much at home here now that I don’t care to go and live on land again.

Meanwhile back in Chitterne Maria’s son, 13-year-old Jimmy, is about to start a seven-year apprenticeship with Mr Exton of Boreham, Warminster, as a wheelwright. She has some words of advice for her son on 9 December 1870:

I need not tell you how glad and thankful I was to get your welcome letter and to hear that you think you shall like your place. I hope you will and get on well in every sense of the word. It is very good of you to give your Grandmother something regularly. By doing so, you are helping her and me and it is a great comfort to us both, and you may depend upon it, it will not lose its reward.

It’s a great mistake to think a young person will be any the worse off  for what they do for their parents. As well may you say that a Father would be ruined by providing food for his helpless children. If all would do it, there would be much more happiness and greater prosperity in households, and in the country at large, but apart from all this, what a pleasure and comfort it is to oneself to know that we are adding but one crumb of comfort to those who have done so much for us, especially when we do it in a spirit of thankfulness to the giver of the health and strength and kind friends.

I am sorry to hear the water is so high (a reference to Chitterne’s problem with the winterbourne that runs through the village). I do hope you will be able to go home nearly every week, as you are all the comfort dear Mother has got, as Walter (Walter Isaac Windsor 1854-1921 youngest son of Issac Windsor) is only a trouble to her, who does your washing. I am glad to hear you have such good wages and I am sure you will be as careful as you can. You don’t know what is before you, but whether it is prosperity or adversity, you will find that it’s a good thing to know where to lay your hand on a pound, and if you don’t begin to lay by now, you will find it more difficult bye and bye.

I was very much interested in reading that account of the Rifle supper (Jimmy became a keen member of the Wiltshire Volunteer Rifle Corps) in the paper, and trust that whenever your name appears in print, it will always be in connection with something honourable.

The last two paragraphs show Maria’s concern that her son should not turn out like his father James Feltham, who spent his earnings on alcohol and as a result was often in court and in the newspaper. At this point in Maria’s story we have no idea where James Feltham is. He does not appear in the 1871 census as far as we can see and Maria makes no mention of him, but he is due to turn up in Chitterne again in the 1880s.

Maria’s mother Euphemia and her second husband Isaac Windsor were living on the St Mary’s side of Bidden Lane at this time, next door to the shop run by Thomas and Lydia George. This shop appears to have been directly behind The White Hart Inn and no longer exists. Maria frequently asks about the George family in her letters to her mother.

 

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Maria Cockrell Part 6: Maria goes sailing and Jimmy is apprenticed

Malting Barley in Chitterne, early 1900s

Early 1900s photo of a flood in Chitterne shows the malt house to the left of the house now known as the Old Malt House. The bridge centre left is Clump Farm bridge, which now leads to St Mary’s Close and the Sportsfield.

In the early 1900s Frederick Wallis (1858-1941), the farmer at The Manor, Chitterne St Mary, grew barley and malted it in Chitterne. He leased the 10 quarter malthouse in Chitterne St Mary from Sir Walter Hume Long for this, as we know from the brochure for the 1896 sale of the Chitterne estate. Recently I have been looking at Frederick Wallis’ farm account book and in particular at his record of malt sales from 1906 to 1914, when it appears he gave up malting altogether.

His main customers for the malt he produced were Joseph Lewis at the Dragon Brewery, Barford St Martin and Charles Price of West Street Brewery behind The Cock Inn, Warminster. The two establishments still exist, although The Dragon at Barford is now called The Barford Inn.

The Barford Inn, Barford St Martin, formerly The Green Dragon, and before that The Dragon.

Joseph Lewis at Barford bought up to 280 bushels of Chitterne malt per year, between 1906 and 1914, in lots of 100 or 80 bushels at an average of 5 shillings (25p) per bushel. Part of his payment to Frederick Wallis was in beer, presumably made using Chitterne malt. (A bushel is  a measure of capacity equal to 8 gallons or 36.4 litres).

The Cock Inn, West Street, Warminster

Charles Price at West Street, Warminster bought upwards of 800 bushels each year between 1907 and 1912 at 4 shillings and 9 pence per bushel to start with, rising to 5 shillings in 1908. Charles Price died in 1912 but Frederick Wallis was still selling malt to the executors of his estate after his death. The Cock Inn was my maternal grandfather’s local, so he must have known Charles Price and supped beer brewed with Chitterne malt. Charles and my grandfather, Albert Frank Reynolds, may even have been related as Albert’s mother was Louisa Price.

When I started looking into malting I was unsure what the process involved, so in case you are equally baffled, malting is done by immersing the barley in water to encourage the grains to sprout, then drying the barley to halt the progress when the sprouting begins.

I am grateful to CJW for the loan of her great grandfather’s Farm Accounts Book.

 

 

 

 

 

Malting Barley in Chitterne, early 1900s

Breakheart Hill

Breakheart Hill lies northwest of Chitterne and divides the village from the Imber Range live firing area. There are two public ways up the hill from the village. Via Imber Road or via The Hollow, otherwise known as the old Salisbury to Warminster coach road.

breakheart imber road (2)
The old road to Imber heading up Breakheart Hill

Imber Road starts from the Tilshead Road in the village, crosses Chitterne Brook, passes between Manor Farm and old All Saints churchyard, through Chitterne Farm West farm buildings and continues on up the hill. It is a hard surfaced road until the crest of the hill, where it suddenly stops as you reach the firing range danger area. At this point, looking ahead, you can see Breakheart Bottom, a dry valley within the danger area. (Incidentally, E M Forster mentions walking through Breakheart Bottom on page 171 of his book called “The Creator as Critic and other Writings”).

breakheart bottom
Looking towards Breakheart Bottom from the by-way

Before the land was taken for military training the road to Imber crossed the valley and passed the site of yet another Field Barn settlement called Penning Barn. A reminiscence of Penning Barn from a 1992 copy of Chitterne Chat, edited by Jeanne George says:

“A stable of 10 carthorses used to graze the large paddock on Penning bank behind the barn …and pigs, saddlebacks and large whites, were bred there and free-ranged in the paddock.”

breakheart byway (2)
The gravelled by-way on Breakheart Hill looking west. Breakheart bottom is to the right.

At the top of Imber Road a gravelled restricted by-way extends to the left and right, almost following the crest of Breakheart Hill. Turning left the by-way brings you eventually to the top of the Hollow and from it you can see for miles across the Imber Range in one direction and back towards the village in the other direction.

 

breakheart hollow (2)

The Hollow starts at the western end of the village in a part of Chitterne once known as Gunville. Although the by-way was originally the stone-paved coach road to Warminster it is now a muddy uneven track much loved by 4 x 4 drivers and trail bikers. It is now in such a poor state for walkers that it has almost lost its status as part of the Imber Range Perimeter path. Walkers following that route are warned and directed toward the easier path via Imber Road.

breakheart hollow (1)

However, if you brave the series of puddly dips and rises and climb up the western end of Breakheart Hill, at the top you will be rewarded with a view across the Wylye Valley towards the hills beyond. On the way up if you look carefully on your left you may even spot one of the original coach road milestones hiding in the bank behind a small tree: Warminster 8 Sarum 14.

It must have been a sight 250 years ago to see a laden coach and horses struggling up out of the village via this route, perhaps after a night spent at the White Hart Inn. No wonder it was known as Breakheart Hill.

 

 

 

 

 

Breakheart Hill

Grandmother’s Necklace

sid fob

may ingram
May wearing the fob

This fob belonged to my grandmother May, she wore it after she was widowed in 1921. So I never knew my grandfather Sid. He died of kidney failure when he was only 34 years old. I never knew my grandmother either, she died aged 53, three years before I was born. I have just a few of their things, left me by my father, but no memories.

I can only imagine what they were like as people from looking at photographs and handling their possessions. I like to think we would have got along fine. They were both  small. According to his army records Sid was the same height as me and my father, 5 feet 3½ inches. May looks to be even smaller. We probably would have had interests in common and agreed on a lot of things. Both lived and worked in the gloving trade in Westbury. Sid was a glove cutter and May a glove machinist at home. Sid was a trade unionist who recruited members from other local glove factories.

sid&mayingram
Sidney Albert Nelson and Agnes May Ingram nee Papps
sidney ingram
Sid in army uniform WW1

My mother was convinced she had met Sid when he came recruiting to her glove factory in Warminster, but the numbers don’t add up. If my mother started work aged 14 in 1922 and Sid died in 1921, how could that have happened? Perhaps she started working earlier. I don’t think my mother would have joined a union anyway, coming from her conservative family.

 

That’s the other thing, Sid and May might have provided a counter-balance to my other stricter grandparents in Warminster. My grandmother Sarah was bedridden by the time I knew her, but ruled the house from her bed in the living room with a rod of iron. Or rather a walking stick which she whacked me across the back of my legs with, for what misdemeanour I fail to remember. No love lost there.

maypappsingram
May much later, still wearing the fob

No, Sid and May’s was a love match. May wore the photo of Sid on a chain around her neck because she loved and missed him. I just wish I could have known her.

 

Grandmother’s Necklace

Football Stars

My mother, who was a Warminster girl, once told me of a couple of lads from Chitterne  that she knew in her youth. She knew them as Pont and Pimp Bailey. Pont was short for Ponton and Pimp was short for Pimple. How word fashions change!

 

football 28-29
Chitterne Football Club 1928-29. Frank ‘Pimple’ Bailey is the short man standing at the back between goalkeeper Harry Sheppard and Jack Beaumont. Most of the middle row are unknown except for Eric Polden second from right. Second and third from the left in the front row are Bill Spratt and Ernie Polden.

These lads were footballers, as were my mother’s brothers, so they came to Warminster to play football and that’s how my mother knew them. Reading between the lines I get the impression that she idolised these handsome Chitterne boys, because she also mentioned cycling over to the village with a friend. This was back in the 1920s, before television, when Chitterne Football Team had won the Warminster Hospital Cup three times in succession and were local football heroes.

nora 1920s
My mother Nora in the 1920s

Fast forward to today when I am looking at the Marriage Banns Register for Chitterne and come across the banns for a marriage in 1929 between Frank Bailey and Amy Gilbert. Frank was the youngest and smallest of the Bailey boys hence his nickname ‘Pimple’. Amy Gilbert was a Warminster girl, the same age as my mother and distantly related to her. I wonder if they were friends and rivals who went cycling together?

The Bailey boys were the sons of Tom and Amy Bailey, who lived at 2 Middle Barn Cottages. There were nine children in the family, two girls and seven boys. Sadly, Frank Bailey lost his life in the second World War and is remembered on our village War Memorial.

Football Stars