Who is this Man?

DB has asked if this man can be identified. The photo belonged to his recently deceased aunt Muriel who was born in Chitterne in 1928. Her name before marriage was Muriel Evelyn Churchill, her father was Charles Churchill who worked at Clump Farm, Chitterne, her mother was Gladys Snook. The family later moved to Swindon and Muriel married John Cowley.

Muriel had previously named the man in the photo as her grandfather Isaac Churchill, but that has proved to be wrong when compared with other authenticated photos of Isaac.

The unknown man may of course be a Snook ancestor from Muriel’s mother’s side. Whatever the case, if you think you recognise this man please will you get in touch with me using the contact form in the menu, top right corner.

Clay Pipes

An extraordinary deposit of “the best clay in England for the making of clay pipes” is to be found above the chalk on Chitterne St Mary Down between the Codford and Shrewton roads. The hill is known as Clay Pit Hill. The almost pure white clay is mixed with round pebbles varying from small to about 5 inches across.

Clay Pit Hill the clump of trees covering the clay pits

On a windy Wednesday in January 2007 I accompanied Rod and Dyana Fripp, from Perth, Western Australia, to Clay Pit Hill where, over 350 years ago, Rod’s ancestor, Edward Fripp, held a licence to dig clay for the manufacture of clay pipes.

Edward Fripp, Rod’s 12 x great grandfather, was born in Chitterne about 1616. He married Mary Merewether around 1650. Edward, and Mary’s brother, Christopher Merewether, were in business supplying clay from Chitterne to the Gauntlet family of tobacco pipe manufacturers in Amesbury.

The site of the old clay pits are on private land and covered in trees that shelter pheasant rearing pens. Before venturing out we had gained permission to visit the site.

At Clay Pit Hill the pits are deep craters, some with steep sides, some shallow, one filled with water, but all very obvious despite the undergrowth. I was astonished, as we had been led to believe that there wasn’t much to see, but we found the white clay and pebbles exposed near the wet pit, where the leaf mold had been washed away. Unfortunately the conditions for photography were poor.

Clay pit filled with water

Some years ago I came across a document at the Record Office (Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre) that mentioned the licence granted in 1651 to Edward Fripp and Christopher Merewether by Henry Paulet, Lord of the Manor. As part of their agreement they were licenced to dig for one year and permitted to remove 30 loads of clay and cart them to Amesbury. But it is obvious that many more than 30 loads of the clay have been dug from the pits, as some of them are deeper than a man is tall, even after 350 years of erosion and filling by leaf mulch. So presumably the clay pits were in use long before tobacco was ever brought to England. The clay is said to have been used in the building of Chitterne St Mary Manor, and the round pebbles decorate many a Chitterne garden, but it would be interesting to know who thought of using the clay to make tobacco pipes.

Fripp and Merewether also agreed to pay Henry Paulet £10 for the licence and give him 8 gross of pipes. That makes 1,152 pipes if my reckoning is correct. Lord Paulet must have been a heavy smoker.

Fragments of clay pipes

The fragments of clay pipes in this photograph were dug up in the Round House garden. None of them have the Gauntlet identification mark so I suspect they are of later manufacture, but I like to think that they are made of Chitterne clay. Traditionally clay tobacco pipes are associated with curates and one Joseph Brown Morris, curate of Imber 1808-1815, lived at the Round House so perhaps he smoked these pipes.

Village Hall 2 – 50 years

The old village hall records have me wondering where Chitterne villagers celebrated in large numbers before we had the first hall in 1921. There was the reading room, but that was tiny, or the school was handy, but inconvenient with two classrooms and tiered seating, so where? My guess is that they gathered in one of the huge barns at the two manor farms, as below.

Celebration supper in a village barn

But I digress, where were we, oh yes, the second village hall, converted from the old village school that closed in 1967. I don’t want to repeat myself again, like the last blog, so here is the link to my earlier hall history:

http://www.chitterne.com/history/villagehall

Now, for the extra detail I’ve recently discovered on what went on behind the scenes at the second hall.

Village School 1840-1967

After its closure, the school was in the hands of Wiltshire County Council who planned to sell the site, but it did not belong to them. The site was still owned by the heirs of Lord Long who had originally offered it to the villagers for the school building. But the village wanted the school for a new village hall, and the Long family agreed, but before this could happen the parish council and Lord Long needed to negotiate with the County Council. The negotiations took some time but happily led to the transfer of ownership from Richard Gerard 4th Viscount Long to the parish council in December 1970.

In the meantime the old school was standing empty and deteriorating. Urgent repairs were needed to the roof, gutters, walls and windows. Building costs were rising fast in the 1970s, and the price of houses booming. This meant that monies already raised in the village for the new hall were now inadequate. Eventually the hall was repaired and after more fund-raising was converted into a village hall, opened in December 1971 by Viscount Long and Rev. H T Yeomans.

Chitterne’s second village hall 1971-1998

As part of the agreement with the County Council a charitable trust for the hall was arranged at the same time as the transfer of ownership. This proved to be a bit of a problem in 1978 when two prominent members of the village hall committee were forced to resign because of the trust rules. Bill Windsor and Evelyn Potter were very valuable and committed members of the committee, but the problem was that both were paid from hall funds for the work they did. Bill for repairs to the hall and Evelyn for keeping it so clean. The trust rules stated that they could not be members of the committee that paid them. Committee secretary, T S-B, wrote to the Charity Commission begging for the two to be allowed to remain on the committee, but the reply was a definite No.

The site of the old village hall, the Hut in Bidden Lane, was finally sold by the parish council in 1976. Presumably it was purchased by the owner of the Well House (since renamed Well Cottage), Aubrey Miller, to enlarge his garden. Proceeds from the sale were distributed among the various organisations that used the hall for their meetings. Amongst the records there is a thank you note from the Chitterne W I for a donation received from the parish council after the sale.

The final piece of icing on the cake for future social gatherings in Chitterne came in 1977 when, as part of the Royal Jubilee celebrations, the parish council purchased the field opposite the new hall from the MoD for £800. To read more about the Sportsfield click below

https://suerobinsonmeuk.wordpress.com/2016/08/09/the-sportsfield/

Thank you AK for the records of the two old halls and LM for pointing out my repetition!

Cotsmere 2

DF carries on his memories of moving to Cotsmere, Townsend, Chitterne in 1944:

“Second Saga: Water supply to Cotsmere.

Having sought and given permission by the MOD to connect into the MOD Water supply that supplied the Stables in the back lane area, a farm building then that formed part of Mr Long’s farm, my father had to plan and decide the proposed route and of course what it would cost. It was decided to hand excavate a trench 75cm deep and 30cm wide from the rear area of the stables to the Cut (Chitterne Brook), then along the Cut to an area adjacent to Percy Churchill’s garden area, where a bungalow is now sited (Fieldview), across this area and the road to Cotsmere.

Townsend c1930. Percy Churchill’s garden was behind the hedge on right.

Having decided on this and then taken in consideration that the work would have to be carried out when the Cut was dry, the job was put on hold temporarily. In the meantime property holders along the route were approached to either help or pay towards the costs so that they could then connect to it. My dad needed to know who was interested as this would have determined the size of the pipe that he planned to install. Needless to say no-one was interested not even Percy Churchill!!!!!

Finally with the help of me, my Uncles Billy Collier and Harry Aston, the job was completed. On completion, believe it or not there were some householders who felt that as the supply was connected to the MOD service they had a right to connect to the new supply, unfortunately for them, this was just wishful thinking. They had no legal right.”

So, in the 1940s Cotsmere was one of the first houses in the village to have a piped water supply. Other properties relied on well water, or if they were lucky a piped farm supply. There were 6 wells in Townsend, which often ran dry in Summer, forcing the residents affected to use the deep well by Lodge gates, or fill their allocation of two buckets a day from the Chitterne Farm supply.

The water supply at Chitterne Farm (The Stables were part of Chitterne Farm at that time, as DF says) had been installed by the John Wallis Titt Company in the 1930s. The firm were contracted by the MOD to sink a borehole 300 feet deep in 1934 to carry out a pumping test and if successful install a pumped water supply.

Mains water came to the village before we came in 1976, although we were still using Glebe Farm supply at that time and for many years after. The Wessex Water Pumping Station on the Tilshead road was built in the 1980s and opened in 1988.

The people DF mentions are Mr Long the farmer: Robert William Long (1878-1953) was the farm manager for R J Farquharson at the Chitterne Farm Estate from 1906 to 1937, and carried on the same role from 1937 to 1955 as tenant of the MOD.

Percy Richard William Churchill (1909-1966) lived at 10 Townsend and was the father of the late Timothy Churchill.

Cotsmere

Townsend early 20th century

Cotsmere was the name given to a house at Townsend when Charlie Bland built it in the 1920s to house his family. Charlie’s widow Elizabeth sold the house to DF’s parents in 1944.

DF has been reminiscing about the time he spent here before moving away in the 1960s. He recalls the house had few services at first, just a well, an earth closet and a bath you filled by hand, and how this was remedied by his father. First to deal with the sewage:

“When my father purchased Cotsmere, the garden area was limited and obviously this was where the Septic tank possibly needed to be constructed.

Taking this on board, my father approached the MOD about the possibility of purchasing the land area to the West of the Cotsmere boundary to the Eastern Boundary of No 1 Abdon Close. His request was considered by the MOD and approved, that’s the good news, unfortunately the MOD had one problem, their action to put the wheels in motion and get the deal done was dead slow and stop to say the least.

After what seemed ages, my father took it on his shoulders to go in person to Whitehall to get it resolved and this worked. From memory I believe he paid about £60 plus costs for the land.

At the same time he was given permission to connect to the water supply at the stables, however this is another story.

When the time came to start the Sewage disposal project, it was summer holidays for me, so I was given the task to excavate the hole by hand, approximately 4 metres long 2 metres wide and 2 metres deep with pick axe & shovel and a wheel barrow.   

My father would not hire an Excavator with operator as the price then was about £2.50 an hour and he thought that was extortionate.

So the next move, was to dispose of the spoil removed. To this end, my father was aware that there was a disused well by the side of the road only a short distance from our property so he said, right we will fill it in it’s dangerous !!!! And that is exactly what I did, wheel barrow after wheel barrow, the well was dry at the time and was approx 7m deep x 1m wide, believe it or not, sufficient to accommodate all of the spoil that I removed. 

When I started, there was a frog at the bottom of the well and as the well was filled in the frog gradually came up to the surface and when the spoil reached almost to the top, it hopped out and away.

Opposite the well lived Gladys Grant and when I started, she came out swearing.  She claimed that when the spring waters came back, as the well could not fill up, all of that water would flood her cottage!!! What rubbish.”

To be continued…

Gassing in the Church

I thought you might like to see this fascinating article from January 1887 in the Warminster & Westbury Journal. Discovered recently when friends were looking for an old newspaper article about the village 1887 Jubilee Celebrations.

 

church gassing Warminster Petty Sessions Warminster & Westbury Journal 8 January 1887

The church was only 25 years old in 1887, someone had been neglecting to service the coke stove!

church pre war memorial
All Saints with St Marys Church Chitterne taken from Great House (now Coach House) gardens before the War Memorial was erected

The father of the gassed boy, Joseph Dean 1846-1927, one of the Imber Deans, farmed at Chitterne Farm (now known as Chitterne Farm East). His wife was Louise Chisman from Stockton 1846-1932. There’s a field known as Chisman’s Field alongside the B390 to Warminster.

Joseph and Louise had three sons, any one of them could have been the victim. Edgar Wilfred born in 1878, George Leslie in 1880 and Joseph Percy in 1881. I have written in detail about Joseph Percy re the Scout Motor Company for an entry in the Chitterne history timeline here: Percy Dean

Wilfred who went on to have a long life died in 1958. He lived in Chitterne until at least 1903 and inherited some cottages in Bidden Lane in 1895.

George Leslie however died quite young, aged 47 years in January 1928, so perhaps he suffered the worst of the gassing as a young lad.

Victoria’s Golden Jubilee

jubilee book 1887

This neat little exercise book was recently discovered in an attic in Townsend. As they say, you never know what you may discover in an old attic. Perhaps something like this fascinating gem, which records the meetings held in the village about the proposed celebrations for Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee to be held on the 21st June 1887.

Most interesting are the lists of subscribers to the jubilee fund who must represent every family in the village at the time. These I will scan and include in this blog. I am sure some of you will find some ancestors listed, there are a lot of familiar names. But first to run through what was proposed and arranged for entertainment and memorial of the day.

school 2
The Chitterne School venue for the meetings

A meeting was held on 24th May 1887 in the National School Room, chaired by Rev. Charles Avery Pinhorn with the main village farmers supporting him: Messrs Cleverley of All Saints Manor Farm; Blake of Chitterne Farm; Burbidge of Clump Farm and Wallis of The Manor, St Mary. The schoolmaster William F Brown was secretary and a very legible one too. Other village worthies: Messrs W Candy, F Maidment; Abdon Polden; Augustus Polden; William James Feltham (Maria’s son); Frank Polden; Clement Polden; Frank Bartlett and others not listed.

Mr Cleverley proposed that “the parish be canvassed for subscriptions, and that according to the amount collected, it then be considered what form the rejoicings to commemorate the Queens Jubilee should take.” This was seconded by Mr Wallis and carried.

Cleverley, Samuel & Elizabeth
William Samuel and Elizabeth Cleverley outside Manor Farmhouse. The barn where the Jubilee Dinner was to be held can just be seen at the left edge of the photo

A committee was formed, of course, on June 2nd 1887 to collect subscriptions throughout the parish and Mr Cleverley was appointed treasurer. Mr Cleverley then moved “that the Jubilee Day June 21st shall be the day for the rejoicings at Chitterne.” This was seconded by Mr Brown.

The committee was later re-appointed as the Committee of Management and new names added: Wm Compton; Wm. Wish; A J Polden; Joseph Williams; Geo. Feltham; Geo. White; Stephen Sheppard; Herbert Feltham; Edward Ashley; Fredk. Carter; John Smith; James Day. The committee was to be left to carry out all details of the work. In the good old Chitterne tradition the rejoicings would involve food. A dinner for all parishioners over 12 years of age, and a tea for those under 12.

jubilee tree
An early photo of the 1887 Jubilee Tree

At a later meeting held on 7th June 1887 it was agreed that: “sufficient finds should be reserved to purchase and plant a tree on the Parish Green in memory of the Jubilee, and to procure a strong iron fence to protect the same.”

A sub-committee was formed of Messrs Cleverley, Maidment, Jacob Smith, Brown and Abdon Polden “to procure the requisites for the dinner and to provide for the cooking of the same.” Others were to arrange sports, to arrange tables and provide proper accommodation, to attend to the juveniles, and most important to attend to the beer. Mr Cleverley consented to the dinner being held in his Farm Buildings; the service in the Church was to begin at 12.30 and the dinner at 1.30 and and copies of a short narrative of the Queen’s life were to be distributed to each house.

jubillee expenditure estimate
Expenditure Estimate stuck into the book with the waste from sheets of postage stamps (the secretary’s wife, Sarah Brown, was postmistress)

On the back of the estimate we find who provided what. 160 lbs of Veal from Mr Cleverley; 40 lbs of Ham from Mr Maidment (General Stores at 93 Bidden Lane); 300 lbs of Boiled Beef and 240 lbs of Roast Beef from Mr Blackmore (Heytesbury); 35 lbs of Plum Cake from Mrs Bartlett (Grocer at 60 Bidden Lane) and another 35 lbs of same from Mr Maidment; Plum Puddings from Mrs Smith (General Stores at 17 Townsend); the two village landlords Mr Burr at the King’s Head and Mr Poolman at the White Hart provided 18 barrels of Ale each as well as Ginger Beer; plus various sundries, butter, sweets, sugar, calico, music etc.

On 14th June, the week before the celebrations, at a further committee meeting it was decided that: “no single young man shall be admitted to the dinner without having contributed at least 6d. to the expenses. That no outsider be admitted without having contributed at least 1s.6d. to the expenses. That the ringers be paid 10s. for ringing the church bells on Jubilee Day”.

jubilee subscribers 1
List of subscribers to the Jubilee Fund 1

Note the name W H Laverton. I was surprised to see a name from Westbury, my neck of the woods, on this list from Chitterne. He was the nephew of Abraham Laverton, of the A Laverton & Co. cloth mills in Westbury, who had succeeded his uncle at the mills in the 1880s. I have no idea what William Henry Laverton was doing contributing to the village fund. If anyone does know please contact me.

jubilee subscribers 2
Subscribers page 2

jubilee subscribers 3
page 3

jubilee subscribers 4
page 4

The subscriptions amounted to £54.18s.0d. Together with some sales of meat, calico, butter, bread and some discounts, the amount raised in total was £58.9s.10½d.

Several village business folk had made gifts as follows:

  • Mr Maidment 16 gallons of bread
  • Mrs Smith 12 gallons of bread
  • Mr C Ashley 4 gallons of bread
  • Mrs Bartlett 20lbs of cake
  • Mr Poolman 18 gallons of beer
  • Mr Burr 18 gallons of beer
  • Mr Bartlett 18 gallons of beer
  • Mr Blake 36 gallons of beer

So the final expenditure looked like this:

jubilee expenditure 1887
The page in the book listing actual expenditure

A few names here to comment on: Coates from Warminster we still find today at Coates and Parker the newsagents and stationers in the Market Place and Haden of Warminster was the predecessor of S L Corden at the hardware store in the High Street. Corden suceeded Haden in the late 1880s according to the ‘Warminster in the Twentieth Century’ book by Celia Lane and Pauline White.

A few weeks after the Jubilee Celebrations a final committee meeting was held on July 13th 1887. It was decided that: “£1.1s. of the balance be given to Mr Brown for his trouble as secretary, and that the remaining £1.5s. be retained to plant a tree (supplemented by any further subscriptions which may be given) in memory of the Jubilee.” Sadly, there is no description of how the celebrations went, so we must assume the day went off in the usual Chitterne fashion, with everyone catered for and enjoying themselves.

jubilee tree 2
Jubilee tree in its heyday, a horse chestnut planted 1887 on the Green

For more on the subsequent fate of the tree: 1887 Jubilee Tree

With grateful thanks to BJ for bringing the book to my doorstep.

 

 

 

St Mary’s Chancel

St Mary’s Chancel is all that’s left of Chitterne’s two old 15th century parish churches, making it one of the oldest buildings in the village. The nave of St Mary’s Church was demolished about 1861, leaving the chancel for use as a mortuary chapel. Nowadays it’s just used for occasional church services.

chancel st marys

Ivy covers the end wall in this photo dating from the early 1900s. Note the old thatched barn on the right where Birch Cottage is now. The barn belonged to the church when the vicar of St Marys parish received part of his pay from the tithes raised on the crops grown on church land. Typically a tenth of the value went to the vicar. ‘Glebe’ land was church land, so Glebe Farm was the church farm, and the barn stood in Glebe Farm’s stockyard.

chancel st marys 2

In this photo taken a little later the ivy has been removed and the site of the old nave has started to be used for burials. Note behind the chancel, in both photos, the old cob wall that once formed the boundary of the graveyard. The wall was knocked down and replaced by a fence in 1928 when Ushers Brewery, owners of the King’s Head Inn, gave a part of the inn’s land to enlarge the graveyard.

Recently, when a house the other side of that fence was sold, it was unclear who was responsible for maintaining the fence. A trip to the History Centre in Chippenham to see the original 1928 deed provided the answer: the fence is the responsibility of the Parochial Church Council.

st marys plan
Plan of old church, the chancel is the top section. Nave and side chapel were knocked down.

I admire the medieval builders of this church, they had the good sense to site it far enough away from the Chitterne Brook for the dead to be buried in dry ground.

st marys church south
Drawing of old church, the chancel on the right with steps to door now blocked

 

Tower View

view from tower

A blast from the past, taken from the church tower by AS, some time before Clockhouse, Hawthorn and Merlin Cottages were built, as they are missing, but when we still had the red telephone box on the Green and the Jubilee Tree.

Clockhouse Cottages were built in 1998/9, Hawthorn and Merlin in 2001. Here the land behind White Hart House and Elm Farm has yet to be developed. The sheds used by the MoD’s property services agency are still in situ on the old Elm Farmyard.

A For Sale notice is just about visible on The Poplars railings, so that could point to around 1989 or 1998 when the Poplars changed owners.

Note the Cut is full of vegetation and the Sportsfield rather rough, so this was before the Parish Council took the Cut clearing in hand and the Cricket Club kept the field well-mown. The hardstanding under the swings in the Sportsfield is just about visible in this photo. The swings were already there when the Sportsfield was purchased by the village from the MoD in 1977/78 for £800.

Not too many clues there, so I’m guessing this photo was taken in the late 1980s.

 

Home Guard and Anti-Tank Gun

Chitterne Home Guard going through their paces on the 2 pounder Anti Tank gun

Amazing what you can find on the internet. GS spotted this photo and passed it on to his uncle in Chitterne who passed it to me saying, ‘I’m sure that’s Brook Cottage in the background.’

The photo was described as: ‘Chitterne Home Guard going through their paces on the 2 pounder Anti-Tank gun’, which looks like a publicity shot, but who are the men?

home guard

Here’s a photo of the Chitterne Home Guard outside Manor Farm, right next door to where the other photo might have been taken. Let’s give them names, left to right:

Top row: H Burton; Geoff Helps; John Patterson; Bert Bailey; Bert Diaper; Leslie Sheppard; George Gagen; Ernie Polden.

Second from top row: Les Mundy; Walt Herrington; Walt Ledbury; George Dowdell; John Lecocq; unknown; Don Wallis; Will Ashley; Alban Polden; Len Moore; Herbie Feltham; Bert Lush (not in uniform); Mr Fagg.

Third row: Fred Bowden (in flat cap); Rowland Pearce; Jack Beaumont; Douglas Piercy; George Diaper; Dickie Bailey; George Macey; ‘Pat’ Patterson; Burt Grant; Willie Ashley; William Poolman; Fred Feltham; Stan Waite; Frank Helps; Lewis Feltham; Frank Ashley.

Fourth row: Len Searchfield (seated on chair); Harry Sheppard; Percy Churchill; Cecil Windsor; Lewis Daniels; Sgt Blatch; unknown; William Limbrick (leader); Tom Limbrick; Mr Snelgrove; Ev Feltham; Jack Poolman; unknown; Bill Bartlett.

Front row: Cecil Saxby; Laurie Wallis; John George; Tony Bailey; Gerald Feltham; George Feltham; Billy Windsor; John Oakes; Gerald Polden; Bobby Gorry.

Could the man standing with arm outstretched behind the gun be William Limbrick, and the man squatting to the right of the case be his son Tom Limbrick?